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National archaeological institute with museum bulgarian academy of sciences - страница 14


глава, гравираиа вьрху дръжката на костепа лъжица, дьлга 16 см. Иконографският тип отговаря много точно на този от каменните скыптри, добре познати в Югоизточна Европа от началото на IVхил.пр.Хр. Находката стой най-близо до находките от Феделещи ы Сълкуца.

Откритата при подводните проучвания, заедно с лъжицата, късноепеолншна керамика се отпася към края на културата Варна. Тя не e предмет на оостойно представяне, но редица нейни черти са маркирани, за да се получи представа за характера на културата от финала на енеолитния период.

In 1988 the zoologist Georgi Ribarov in passing mentioned in his paper at the Interna­tional Symposium Thracia-Pontica a "spoon of deer's horn", whose handle was representing a "horse head". The find was among those discov­ered during the underwater excavations of the submerged Eneolithic settlement in the Sozopol harbor. Ribarov did not present any photograph or drawing of the spoon and so nobody paid attention to the report about the "horse head" figure (Ribarov 1991, 115—116). The prelimi-nary excavation report for 1987 by V. Popov is extremely frugal and the bone spoon is not at all mentioned there (flonoB/kathhmapob 1988, 39). Nothing is said about the "horse headed" spoon also in subsequent publications conse-crated to the Sozopol Eneolithic settlement (Ahpeaoba et al. 1993; Ahieaoba et al. 1995; Draganov 1995; Draganov 1998).

I carne across the spoon bearing an animal head figure at its handle in the beginning of2003 during a review of the ceramics from the archae­ological site in question stored in the Center of Underwater Archaeology in Sozopol. The figure being directly related to the stone zoomorphic scepters problem and the Fourth millennium discussion, studied as well by my highly esteemed tutor Prof. Todorova, I am presenting here in more detail this exceptional find.

^ Object description

The spoon is made of a solid bone witness-ing a highly skilled workmanship. Two distinct parts can be discerned: shovel and handle.

All surfaces are polished. Ribarov's alléga­tion that the spoon's material is a deer's horn cannot be sustained. All the external indica­tions and particularly the lack of the charac-teristic horn texture, lead to the conclusion that the material is bone and not horn. The size itself and the flatness of the spoon tend to show as origin a long bone of a big herbivorous animal. A horse bone is not to be excluded, but this is to be only considered as a spéculation connected about the figure itself being a horse head (Fig. 1).

The object overall length is 16 cm while the maximum width is 3.8 cm. The shovel is wide with a drop like shape and is very slightly bent. By a smooth transition it modifies into a long and lean handle, with an oval, nearly circular, cross-section. The handle is minimum 0.6 cm thick. The shovel's minimum thickness is about 0.2 cm.

A three-dimensional miniature figure of an animal's head is sculptured at the end of the handle. The head overall length is hardly 2.3 cm. Despite the small size, ali the détails are represented very skilUully by deeply carved and exceptionally thin lines. Most probably they

0 3 cm

Fig. 1. Bone spoon with zoomorphic handle, Sozopol, Submerged Final Chacolithic Settlement (pholo: K. Dimitrov, scale 3:1; drawings G. Kazarov)

I I I I I I I I I I I

0 3 cm

Fig. 2. Details of the zoomorphic sporn handle, Sozopol, typological index 18 (photos: K. Dimitrov, scale 1:1; drawings G. Kazarov)

have been eut by a fine and sharp flint instru­ment. The figure is slightly f lattened symmetri-cally at both sides of the spoon handle — the right-hand side profile at the upper side and the left-hand side profile at the dovvn side ofthe spoon (Fig. 1 a; Fig. 2).

The basic shape in this zoomorphic figure is a muffle, in which a mouth, eyes and jaw are discerned.

The muffle is rounded and lifted in the nose part. Its surface is partially eroded, but up left cari be noted two small parallel indentations can be noted up left marking a nostril. Most prob-ably fbrmerly they have been four. The mouth is depicted at both head sides by a long straight line sunk tili the eyes level. At the upper side it is limited by two short indentations under cer­tain angle. Curiously enough the mouth line is

G. Tekerli-Mekteb, H. Fitione§ti, I. Suvorovo,

typological index 9 typological index 8.5 typological index 8.5

Fig. 3. Zoomorphic stone scepters with typological indexes, (scale 1:5; after Govedarica/Kaiser 1996)

A. Round bottoni boii'l with graphitepainted décoration

B. Round bottomed pot with Scratches décoration

C. Fragment of a large vessel with incised décoration and knobs

Fig. 4. Ceramics from the Submergea Final Chacolithic Seulement Sozopol (photos: K. Dimitrov, seule 1:2)

interruptecl at the mutile front side. The eyes are not just drawn but are three dimensionally sculptured. Although their surface is partially eroded, further détails can be perceived — most probably pupils.

The lower jaw is represented by Symmetrie low relief arcs at both head sides behind the eyes. Marks from a repeated passing of a fine cutter are conserved at the lower head side. The ears are shown at the upper side ofthe head as a smooth and slightly protruded continuation of both jaws arcs.

I have dealt in detail with the features of the miniatine zoomorphic head from Sozopol so that demonstrating its parallels becomes clearer and better grounded (Fig. 2).

Average Index

CO







13.5







10.5

o




LO CO

LO

co

Additional détails

Index

o

o

o

o

rO

o

ro

rO

Osi

o




Proportions

Index

ro

rs




Osi

O-J

Osi

ro

ro










Ears

Shape Index

ro

ro

rO

ro

ro




-

ro

Osi




fN

Jaw

Shape Index

ro

CN

CM

-




ro

ro

Os|

Osi




ro




Index

m




Osi

rO

rO




LO

Osi




ro

LO

LO

Eyes

Shape and Details

Shape - 3 Details - 3

Shape - 2 Details - 2

Shape - 2 Details-2

Shape - 3 Details-3

Shape - 3 Details - 3

Shape - 1 Details -1

Shape - 3 Details - 2

Shape - 1 Details -1

Shape - 3 Details - 3

Shape - 1 Details - 2

Shape - 1 Details - 2




Index

ro

WJ rsj

LO

OsJ

LO

rsj

ro

Osi

LO

LO

Osi




Mouth

Shape and Technique of exécution

Shape - 3 Technique-3

Shape - 3 Technique-2

Shape - 3 Technique - 2

Shape - 3 Technique -1

Shape - 2 Technique - 3

Shape - 3 Technique - 3

Shape -1 Technique - 3

Shape - 2 Technique -1

Shape - 2 Technique -1

Shape -1 Technique - 3

Shape -1 Technique -1

Muffle



Index

CO

LO

LO rsj

LO

Osi

LO Osi




Osi

LO

Osi

LO

rsj




Shape Nostrils

Shape-3 Nostrils-3

Shape- 2 Nostrils-3

Shape - 2 Nostrils-3

Shape - 2 Nostrils-3

Shape-2 Nostrils - 3

Shape -1 Nostrils - 1

Shape-3 Nostrils - 1

77

cu

D_"j=

£o

Shape -1 Nostrils-2

Shape-3 Nostrils-1

Shape -1 Nostrils -1

Date/arch. context

Submerged settlement Varna IV

-




Settlement Cucuteni A4

Settlement Säleuta IV




Settlement without con­text

Oc h re grave

i

Settlement Cucuteni

Oc h re grave

Govedarica/ Kaiser Type




<

<

<

<

CO

u

co

X

<

u

X

Find

Sozopol BG (Fig. 1; Fig. 2)

Drama BG (Fig. 3 a)

Räzevo BG (Mostly identical to the Drama find)

O ce

c2

tu ro
_ÇU CTI CU Ü_ "O w

cu

ll_

Säleuta RO (Fig. 3 c)

Vinm de Jos RO '(Fig. 3 d)

Suvodol (Suplevac) MA (Fig. 3 e)

Casimcea RO (Fig. 3 f )

Tekerli-Mekteb RUS (Fig. 3 g)

o

ce

---C

oo-ro CU

c cn O lZ

LE

Suvorovo II RUS (Fig. 3 i)

Fig. 5. Ceramics from the submergea, Final Chacolithic seulement Sozopol (photos: K. Dimitrov, scale 1:2)

Parallels of the find

There is no doubt the ncarest similar figures are to be searched among the zoomorphic scept-ers, although they are made of stone and have con-siderably larger size (^ Getov 1980, 91; Tojopoba 1986, 221-227). Few years ago Bl. Govedarica and E. Kaiser published a special study dedi-cated to these finds (Govedarica/ Kaiser 1996). It discusses 14 objects from South East Europe, so far ail the known ofthe zoomorphic type, and offers a typology (Fig. 3; Table 1). Adding a new object, a new zoomorphic figure in our case, cré­âtes a good chance for verifying the objectivity of the typology proposed by them for this kind of finds. A better vision on the "ideal prototype" of the zoomorphic figures could be expected from the compai ison between the stone scepters and the Sozopol bone représentation.

The first attempi to indicate directly the best parallel met certain difficulty. Il turned

A. Sviali fìat villi nail décoration

B. Biconic vessel villi nail impressed décoration

C. Fragment afa biconic vessel villi incised décoration

Fig. 6. Ceramics from the Submerged Final Chacolithic Seulement Sozopol (photos: K. Dimitrov, scale 1:2)

ont that the various features of the Sozopol figure: the muffle, the eyes, the lower jaw, the ears, the proportions as well as the détails and the work technique find similarity, but each in a différent zoomorphic scepters, i.e. not regularly in the saine one. I had therefore to introduce some kind of évaluation method and accord-ingly adopted index by values from 3 to 1 the iconographie features of every scepter: 3 for maximum similarity with the Sozopol zoomor­phic figure and 1 for minimum. The muffle

1 Among these détails a highesi attention deserve the lines engraved (Sâlcuta) or relieved (Casimcea and Suvodol) on the upper part of the zoomorphic figures. i assume

indexing takes into account the general shape and the way of representing the nostrils; the mouth indexing — its shape and the technique of exécution; the eyes indexing — the general shape, the location and the détails; the jaws and ears indexing — their shape.

A separate indexing is used for the propor­tions.

Scepters having détails which are missing in the Sozopol figure are negatively indexée!: from -3 to -l.1 This way every scepter was indexed

they mark a kind of headstall. If that is truc, then the time and the location of the horse domestication would acquile an entirely new light.

in Function of its iconographie similarity with the Sozopol figure. The results from 10 stone figures are reflected in Table 1.

The indexes analysis shows that none of the stone seepters is completely identical with the Sozopol figure. The nearest turn out to be chose from Drama, Räzevo, Fedele§eni and Säleuta - all of them type A in the Govedarica/Kaiser classification.

Some additional similarities with the So­zopol find, besides the pure iconographie ones, could be mentioned too:

— The Fedele§eni and Säleuta finds are also from Settlements;

— The Drama, Räzevo, Fedeleseni and Säleuta objects are from the zone of the large Late Eneolithic farming cultures complex Kodzadermen-Gumelnita-Karanovo VI —Tri-polie/Cucuteni.

Unfortunately the Drama and Räzevo seept­ers have no clear archaeological context (Gftov 1980, 92).

^ Notes on the stratigraphy of the find from Sozopol, its dating and its cultural connection

It was already made clear in the beginning that the exact stratigraphie position of the So­zopol spoon is not well documented, since no detailed publication on the 1987 excavation is available. Nevertheless some clues about this case exist: Ribarov's note about its origin from the Sozopol Eneolithic settlement and the fact that in 2003 the object was "discovered" within the mass Eneolithic ceramic material from the Sozopol harbor. From thèse two facts the con­clusion about the bone spoon origin is quite cer­tain — from the underwater excavations in the Sozopol harbor.

It is known that there are in this site only two prehistoric cultural layers: Eneolithic and from the early Bronze Age (^ Draganov 1995, 233— 235; Draganov 1998, 212—216, fig. 1). The EBA settlement is linked to the Mihalic phase of Ezero culture or the ЕВА II according to its ceramics characteristics (Лешаков 1995, 21, 82; Draganov 1998, 218; Георгиев et ali 1979, 249; Мерперт/Георгиев 1973). This chronological position, supported by ,4C calibrateci dates, leads positively to a dating around the beginning of the third millennium ВС (Бояджиев 1992; Boyadzif.v 1995, 173—177; Gorsijorf/Bojauziev

1996, 140—141). Such a date is loo late for a fig­ure of the zoomorphic type seepters. Then we have to accept that the Sozopol spoon with the zoomorphic figure should be related certainly to the Eneolithic settlement.

V. Draganov assumes that it could be dat­eci to the final Eneolithic age and indicates as nearest parallels the ceramics from the Ja-godinska cave I horizon, Telis-Redutite — III horizon, the late Krivodol phases (Abpamoba 1992; Абрамова 1992a, 244-246; Вайсов 1992; Ганецовски 1993, 87-90; Гергов 1987, 44-48, обр. 3-5; Гергов 1992; Гергов 1992а, 350-353). We could invoke also the stratigraphie observa­tions and the published ceramic material from the Sozopol excavations in 1990 and 1993 (Dra­ganov 1995, 233-236, fig. 7, 8, 9; Draganov 1998, fig. 2-4).

The full treatment of the mass material from Sozopol harbor being carried out and will be published separately. Неге I can draw the at­tention to some preliminary notes, characteris-tic for this ceramics complex (Fig. 4-8):

— The ceramics color is dark, mostly gray, dark gray or black. Seldom some vessels and fragments are brown and light beige (Fig. 6c);

— Most vessels are well shaped from fine clay and with good surface finish;

— The basic clay temper is inorganic — fine sand and very seldom crushed pottery (grob). In the clay of some vessels are found traces from a fine organic temper — probably animai dung. There are single vessels and fragments with more organic temper and finely crushed shells;

— The basic shapes are typical with sharp edged profiles;

Some cups and pots have a rounded wid-est body part, the lower vessel third having a roughed surface, limited on the top by a "false edge"(Fig. 5; Fig. 7e; Fig. 8e). Often these false edges are stressed upon by nail punctures or finger pinches;

— Présent are ring shaped small handles, most often at the false edge, anyway within the lower vessel half. Small tong-shaped handles are more often to be seen on dishes and pots, also on the false edge. Absent are shapes of am-phora type with large vertical handles fixed at the mouth and the false edge. No horizontal handles are observed also on the vessels Shoul­ders. Only small ring shaped handles at the

m

o

10 cm

Fig. 7. Ceramics from the submergea Final Chacolithic seulement Sozopol (photos: K. Dimitrov, seule 1:2)

Shoulders can be met instead (Fig. 6);

— The S-profïled pots are most numerous in Sozopol — with a wide funncled mouth, short neck and spherical body lying on a Fiat and large bottoni. The lower third of some samples is ta-pered and roughed, the bottoni being of small diameter. A particular characteristic is the sur­face décoration of these vessels by diagonali)' thin strips with a sharp upper edge and buttons at the ends. This décoration could be viewed as an imitation of dragging the fingers or a very wide channel. The lower vessel part is often pro-vided with four tong-like handles, linked to the bottom by vertically strips (Fig. 5c, 5e);

— Two round bottom vessels deserve a par­ticular attention. The First one is a bowl with small ring shaped handle, having an appendix at the down side, fixed to the mouth. Finely crushed shells can be observed in this vessel's clay. The small vessel has a graphite décoration consisting of thin diagonal lines (Fig. 4a).

The other round bottomed vessel is a pot provided with two little ring shaped handles, decorateci by diagonal Scratches and lias two buttons on the body (Fig. 4 b).

— A décoration drawn with graphite is sel-dom présent. The graphite décoration is applied on large dishes or small bowls. It is performed with thin lines, organized in sheaves, forming a negative composition (Fig. 8 g).

A few fragments are decorated by thin lines of semi transparent white paint, easy to be washed out. Others ones have a red thick non-fired paint. The allégations in some preliminary communications that this last two type of déco­rations are typical for the Eneolithic Sozopol pottery are not true. On the contrary, although very specific, the thick red and the white draw-ings are very seldom met. However, it is possi­ble they have been more numerous, but this is not visible any more because the paint has been washed or stripped oui.

Some fragments of large pots lower parts bear black flown spots. They could be either an intended décoration or remains from the ves­sels use.

The incised décoration is présent too. It is consisting of lines sheaves, shaping Ornaments of spiral-meander type (Fig. 6c). There is also a version of incised line décoration with triangu­lar sharp punctures. Some of the incised lines are white encrusted.

It is to be pointed out that the rich and di-versified Kerbschnitt décoration characteristic for the Varna culture is totally missing in Sozo­pol (Todorova/Tonôeva 1975; Tojopoba 1986, 119-121).

All above said leads to the following conclu­sion about the Sozopol ceramic complex:

— The shapes and the décorations do not allow relating it to some of the known three Varna culture phases;

— The comparison to theThracian late Ene­olithic settlements materials also shows consid­erable différences in the shapes. No vessels are présent with two vertical or horizontal handles, particularly characteristic for the Thracian tell Eneolithic end (Mazanova 1992, Taf. I, IV-V; Todorova, N.. 2003, Tabi. 1—5, 8—9, 12; To­dorova, N., et ali 2003, Tabi. 8; Todorova, N./ Matsanova 2000, Fig. 26.4—26.7, Tabi. 26.4— 26.9);

— Several features: the white painting, the thick red paint, the "Scratches" décoration, some shapes and the présence of crushed shells in the clay allow to date the Sozopol complex after the last Eneolithic horizons of the tells in Thracia and even after the last phase of Krivodol culture (Георгиева 1987; Georgieva 1988; Georgieva 1993; Doodd-Opritescu 1982, 71; Абрамова 1992; Абрамова 1992а; Николов 1975; Николов 1984).

— It is very important to note that the So­zopol ceramics, although possessing several specific features and particularities, may by no means be separated from the late Eneolithic complex to which they no doubt belong. Their spécifies can be explained by the settlement géographie location and by chronological rea-sons. The dating of the Sozopol settlement at the final Eneolithic, proposed by V. Draganov, is quite acceptable. I estimate to be correct also detei mining the Sozopol settlement as belong-ing to the Varna culture IV stage (Draganov 1998, 218).

However the thorough characteristic of this final Eneolithic phase of the Varna culture could only be proposed after the complete pub­lication of the Sozopol finds and about those from the other submerged settlements along the Bulgarian south Black Sea coast: Ahtopol (?), Ropotamo river, Atia, the Fish haibour in Bourgas. So far this late IV phase of the Varna culture is not displayed within the materials from the submerged settlements around the Varna lakes (Todorova/Tonceva 1975).

The bone spoon, examinée! in the présent communication, is an important indication about the synchronism of the final eneolithic Sozopol settlement with the horizon of the stone seepters. This assumption once made, we may propose to synchronize the zoomor­phic seepters with the final Eneolithic of the Bulgarian South Black Sea coast, at least those of the Govedarica/Kaiser type A. This way the type A zoomorphic seepters could be referred to the period 3850—3750 cal. BC. We propose this dating on the basis of the series MC dates from Krivodol, Telis and the Jagodinska cave, matched in addition with the observations on the Sozopol ceramics typology. Several indica­tions push me to evalúate it to be a little later than the mentioned sites (BojADpEV etal. 1993, 63; Görsdorf/Bojadziev 1996, 152—155).

The présence of a zoomorphic figure of the seepters type on an site from a Final Eneolithic settlement sets a question mark upon a theory that the collapse of the Eneolithic cultures on the Balkan Peninsula allegedly to be resulting directly from a destructive invasion into the pe­ninsula by nomad populations from the South Russian steppes (Тодорова 1986, 221—227; Дергачев 2000; Манзура 2000; Мерперт 1980; Escedy 1982).

As far as the Sozopol settlement at least is concerned, it could be stateci that here no doubt we observe a late manifestation of a sterling Eneolithic culture, having integrateci in many of its features also éléments of possibly steppes origin.

Acknowledgments

First of all, I am thankful to my teacher Prof. H. Todorova who has been guiding me in prehistoric archeology more than fifteen years. I deeply acknowledge and thank all my

Fig. 8. Ceramics from the Submergea Final Chalcolithic Seulement Sozopol (photos: K. Dimitrov, seule 1:2)

colleagues from the Center of Underwater Ar-chaeology in Sozopol who always supported me - Chr. Angelova, V. Draganov. G. Jeleva and P.

Petrov. I express my special thanks to G. Ka-zarov who made the drawings for this commu­nication.

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